#2 Biomechanics and Motor Learning



#2 Biomechanics and Motor Learning

Motor Learning

Walking- inefficiencies
1. Bouncy walk
2. Excessive swing of arms away from sides
3. Failure to swing arms at the shoulders
4. Feet held close together/looks jerky
5. Feet help apart/duck walk
6. Toes turned out
7. Toes turned in
8. Head too far forward/body leaning forward.

Running- mature has a support and recovery phase w/ 2 periods of non-support. Mature:
1. Trunk slightly forward lean throughout stride
2. Both arms swing though a large arc and opposite of legs
3. Support foot strikes ground flat and under center of gravity
4. Extension of hip, knee, ankle propels forward and upward
5. Knee of support leg bends slightly after foot has hit ground
6. Recovery knee swings forward quickly to high knee raise lower leg flexes with foot to butt.

Running:
1. Legs swing forward and backward and or outward or around
2. Arms swinging in opposition to the legs
3. Arms stay close to the body during action
4. Body leans slightly forward
5. Support foot flat when contacting ground

Hopping: spring from one foot to same foot. Knee seldom straightens. Ankle joint propels and absorption of landing

Leaping: extension of run. One foot takes off to land on other foot. Arm opposition like in a run. Landing leg bends to absorb force of body.

Sliding: combination of step and run. Lead legs springs forward and back foot slides to meet feet together.

Gallop: exaggerated slide in forward direction. Leg lifts forward and following foot quickly closely

Skipping: step and a hop first on one foot then on the other foot. Alternating and opposition of the walk. Uneven rhythm.

Chasing: traveling quickly to overtake tag or tag a fleeing person.

Fleeing: traveling quickly away from someone or object.

Dodging: moving the body in different directions other than original line or movement.

Chasing, Fleeing, and Dodging-
1. running from one location to another
2. traveling around a room and changing the direction of travel quickly on a signal
3. when a signal is given perform dodging maneuver
4. running away a partner and then running to a partner.

Jumping and Landing-
1. takeoff- actions of the body as it is propelled off the ground- hips, ankles, knees flex in a crouch as they prepare to jump. Arms extend forward then upward upon takeoff
2. flight- actions of the body while it’s off the ground and in the air- does full body extend fully in the air of jump.
3. landing- actions of the body as it reestablishes contact with the ground- hips, knees, ankles flex to absorb shock of landing.

Balancing-
1. body parts as bases of support, use wide bases to support, stopping in balanced positions
2. supporting weight on combinations of body parts, supporting weight on hands alone, balancing on narrow bases and in inverted positions, holding stationary balances on various apparatus.
3. Combining stationary balances with actions on benches, tables and beams. Moving from an on-balance to an off-balance position. Moving into and out of balances with stretches and twisting actions
4. Extensions away from body when balanced on narrow base, partner and group balances, rapid turns and twists into balanced positions, dismounts that include landing in balanced positions.

Transferring weight
1. Traveling on select body parts, transfer weight by sliding, slithering, or creeping.
2. Stretching, curling, twisting into transfer. Transferring weight following step and spring takeoffs, transferring weight onto and off of equipment using different body parts. Transfer weight from feet to hands.
3. Vaulting over apparatus. Mounting apparatus by inverted positions. Traveling on apparatus with curling actions.

Rolling- hands and arms receive weight of body, head slides through as weight is transferred from hands to back. Hands off mat as soon as back touches ground. Body stays curled until they hit feet. Round Body.
1. Changing directions of rolls, backwards, sideways, forward. Changing speed of rolls. Rolling from different positions (one foot, two foot, standing).
2. Rolling with something in hands. Rolling after catching. Rolling on or over equipment. Combine rolling with other locomotor skills.
Catching-
1. Little active arm response. Little adaptation to balls flight. Traps ball against chest
2. Arms extended sideways to hug ball
3. Arms extended forward to scoop under ball. Bal trapped against chest.
4. Arms give with incoming toss extending to meet flight of ball. Ball is caught in hand.

Soccer Dribble-
1. Kick the ball behind the ball not on top.

Dribble/kick for distance-
1. Make contact with the instep (laces of shoes) not the toe.
2. Trunk inclined backward before the kick
3. Kick below the center of the ball
4. Kicking leg bends in preparation for kick
5. No kicking foot alongside of the ball
6. Watch the ball

Punting-
1. Drop the ball rather than toss up in the air
2. Kick off shoelaces rather than toes
3. Kick ball at 45 degree angle rather than too late or early
4. Eyes on ball

Throwing-
1. Step forward with opposite foot
2. Rotate hips and spine as you throw
3. Elbow flexed and extended on back swing.
4. Arm behind
5. Follow through
6. Side to target (overhand throw) face target (underhand throw)

Catching-
1. Elbows flexed ready to catch
2. Catch with hands only not with chest
3. Elbows extended as they catch to absorb force of ball
4. Eyes track ball into the hands.

Volleying-
1. Hit with flat part of body (leg, foot, hand, arm)
2. Extend upward as hit happens
3. Move feet to get into position
4. Bend knees (volleyball hit)
5. Fingertips (push ball)
6. Extend arms (push through ball)

Dribbling-
1. Finger pads- use soft parts at end of fingers to control ball
2. Knees bent- back straight but knees bent
3. Hand on top of ball
4. Flexible wrists
5. Look up
6. Ball close to body

Striking with rackets and paddles-
1. Step forward with opposite foot from the arm with the paddle
2. Body coils and rotates as they sing the racket
3. Draw the racket back before swinging through the ball
4. Stiff wrist
5. Flat part of paddle
6. Watch ball
7. Follow through
8. Bend knees to get correct height
9. Quick feet to get in correct position

Striking with long handled implements- (sidearm-baseball swing)
1. Keep swing horizontal
2. Forward step and then hip, trunk, and arm rotates with body
3. Wrists un-cock after contact
4. Watch ball
5. Side to field
6. Bat back

Striking with long handled implements- (underhand swinging- golf swing)
1. Non dominant hand kept firm at top of backswing
2. Weight shifted to back foot with knees remaining bent
3. Weight shifted to forward foot as swing begins
4. Watch ball
5. Opposite foot goes forward
6. Arms way back
7. Follow through
8. Dominant hand in middle/ non dominant at top of stick (hockey)


Biomechanical Concepts

Force: acceleration (change in velocity of object to which force is applied) and deformation (change in space) (racquetball getting hit get deformed at contact)

Net force: vector sum of all active forces on a body.

Torque: product of a force and its moment arm ( open a door furthest away from hinges)

Equilibrium: when all acting forces and torque on a body are balanced. Should be motionless or moving at a constant speed.

Reaction Force: when one body exerts force on a second body. 2nd body exerts reaction force of equal size and opposite direction. (catch a ball that reduces velocity of ball to 0.

Muscle Tension (a pulling force) pulls on bones attached.

Application of knowledge for acquisition and development of skills

Why are specific concepts important?

• Knowledge students need to be able to learn independently and to be able to learn which will help later in life when they choose to acquire skills
• Students with strong backgrounds in basic and fundamental skills will be better suited for an active lifestyle
• At minimum students should understand the basic concepts that equip them to become independent learners of motor skills.
• Repetition will provide reinforcement the student needs to learn concepts and be able to use them in new learning experiences.
• Skills used in many different activities
• Need to understand biomechanical concepts to learning and improving movement skills