#1 Exercise Science



#1 Exercise Science

Fitness Components
• Muscular Strength and Endurance- strength is the amount of force a muscle can produce. Endurance is the muscles ability to produce that force over a period of time. Upper body strength (arms and shoulders) is a growing problem related to inactivity. Cardiovascular activities also help with muscular strength and endurance. To improve: support weight in arms, transfer weight in hands, balances, stretching of trunk, and gymnastics activities. Important to perform daily activities and play without getting tired. Poor posture is a result of poor strength and endurance.
• Flexibility- the ability to use the joints fully. Allows the joint to move through its potential range of motion. Dance and gymnastics promotes and maintain range of motion. Rolling, Balancing, curling, twisting. Students in sports see a lack of flexibility because of other muscles is emphasized. Static stretch is important (move body part slowly till it stretches and then hold) continue to exercise to maintain flexibility.
• Cardiovascular Efficiency- ability to undergo vigorous exercise for a long time. Activities that increase heart rate for extended periods of time help. Jumping rope, swimming, fitness walking is examples. Pulse rate is heart-pumping blood through arteries. These are whole body activities.
• Body Composition- amount of fat cells compared to lean cells in the body mass. Extreme high or low body fat is bad. Dependent on heredity, nutrition, and level of activity. Best results from activity and good diet. Long period of time is key to changes from diet and activity. Body weight and body comp are not the same.

Scientific/Exercise Principles

FITT
• Frequency: The frequency of exercise is a fine balance between providing just enough stress for the body to adapt to and allowing enough time for healing and adaptation to occur. Recommended every day
• Intensity: the amount of effort that should be invested in a training program or any one session. Moderate effort.
• Type: what type or kind of exercise you should choose to achieve the appropriate training response.
• Time/duration: how long you should be exercising for. 60 minutes each day.

1. Individual Differences
The principles of individual differences simple means that, because we all are unique individuals, we will all have a slightly different response to an exercise program. Well-designed exercise programs should be based on our individual differences and responses to exercise.
2. Overload
The exercise science principle of overload states that a greater than normal stress or load on the body is required for training adaptation to take place. What this means is that in order to improve our fitness, strength or endurance, we need to increase the workload accordingly. In order for a muscle (including the heart) to increase strength, it must be gradually stressed by working against a load greater than it is used to. To increase endurance, muscles must work for a longer period of time than they are used to or at a higher intensity.
3. Progression
The principle of progression implies that there is an optimal level of overload that should be achieved, and an optimal time frame for this overload to occur. A gradual and systematic increase of the workload over a period of time will result in improvements in fitness without risk of injury. If overload occurs too slowly, improvement is unlikely, but overload that is increased too rapidly may result in injury or muscle damage.
The Principle of Progression also stresses the need for proper rest and recovery. Continual stress on the body and constant overload will result in exhaustion and injury. You should not train hard all the time, as you'll risk overtraining and a decrease in fitness.
4. Adaptation
Adaptation refers to the body's ability to adjust to increased or decreased physical demands. It is also one way we learn to coordinate muscle movement and develop sports-specific skills, such as batting, swimming freestyle or shooting free throws. Repeatedly practicing a skill or activity makes it second nature and easier to perform. Adaptation explains why beginning exercisers are often sore after starting a new routine, but after doing the same exercise for weeks and months they have little, if any, muscle soreness. Additionally, it makes an athlete very efficient and allows him to expend less energy doing the same movements. This reinforces the need to vary a workout routine if you want to see continued improvement.
5. Use/Disuse (regularity)
The Principle of Use/Disuse implies that when it comes to fitness, you "use it or lose it." This simply means that your muscles hypertrophy with use and atrophy with disuse.
6. Specificity
The Specificity Principle simply states that exercising a certain body part or component of the body primarily develops that part. The Principle of Specificity implies that, to become better at a particular exercise or skill, you must perform that exercise or skill. A runner should train by running, a swimmer by swimming and a cyclist by cycling.

Activities connecting both

• Activities that promote student fitness (fun and successful) will lead to more active students, which will help with fitness components.
• Exercise principles and fitness components are guides associated with attaining and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
• Clubs and activities give students chances to meet their needs to be active and allow them to work on each of the fitness components. Active schools (safe streets, safe walking/biking, local health clubs/groups, and articles on activities in newsletters, to make school an active place to be.
• Recognize components of physical fitness in each lesson. Emphasize enjoyable participation, range of activities, and give skills to kids.

Promotes students fitness
• Students competent in many motor skills and proficient in a few to use in lifelong physical activities
• Develop basic motor skills that allow participation in variety of physical activities
• Older students competent in select number of activities that they enjoy and can succeed in.
• Students mastery occurs when skills are broken down into components and tasks that are ordered from easy to hard
• Students need opportunities to observe other performing skills and receive encouragement, feedback, repeated opportunities for practice
• Active student involvement focusing on building confidence increases likelihood students will enjoy and succeed in PE and physical activity.
• If fun and successful, students will continue being active.
• Programs that are designed for maximum participation and provide challenges that are appropriate to skill levels develop confidence.

Developmentally Appropriate
• Recognize differences in students and allow for these differences in instruction and activities. Age/Grade shouldn’t determine skills.
• Develop motor skills through play
• Skills must be learned and practiced somewhere.
• Boys are normally more active and as a result become more highly skilled. It all comes down to environment.
• Students need lots of opportunities to practice skills with high rates of success.
• Never use exercise as punishment.
• Clear scope and sequence with observable outcomes that can be assessed.
• Emotionally warm, nurturing environments where students can practice new skills. Should not feel embarrassed or humiliated by teacher or students.

Activities
Muscular Strength and Endurance: 2-3 times per week. Very light weight. At least 1 set of 6-15 reps for at least 20-30 minutes. Major muscle groups, one exercise per muscle or muscle groups.
Primary
• Frequency: Activity Picture Chart- frequency is how many days per week you perform muscular strength and endurance activities. Should do 2 or 3 times a week. Students will understand and perform activities 2 or 3 times a week. Review muscular strength and endurance. Define frequency (how often) and importance of regular intervals of activity. Ask for student’s examples of muscular activities outside of school (carrying groceries). Ask students to find different ways to stay active in their community. Create and pass out a muscular strength and endurance chart and ask students to fill it out with parents support. Collect sheet at the end. Discuss options. Discuss how easy/hard it was.
• Intensity: Statue- Create a picture of the human body with muscle groups labeled (shoulders-deltoids/arms-biceps/chest-pectorals/legs-quadriceps/torso-abdominals) discuss intensity and how hard you work the muscles during an activity and how activities require varying intensities with their muscles. Put students into pairs and spread them throughout the gym. Each group will create a statue shape together that focuses on the upper body, lower body, and both together. Hold for 5 Mississippi’s. Signal students to make shape again and hold for 5 again. And a third time. Ask students to choose a different muscle group and do the same thing. Ask students which moves/balances/statues they felt were the most intense on their muscles. Which statues were the least intense?
• Type: Muscle Trek- Specificity of type refers to the kind of activity you can do. Muscles are specific to an activity. Students will learn that specific activities work specific muscles. Prepare different activities for different body groups. One for each major body groups. Discuss how each station will have a specific muscle group being worked. Have students move throughout the gym and stop on command. When they stop hold up a sign that has the muscle group they will be working (example: Quadriceps (legs)) and have them complete skiers or jogging in place) Continue until you visit each body group.
• Time: How long an activity takes. Time that it takes for sets and reps to take with rest between. Students will learn repetitions, set, and rest in a workout. Time encompasses sets, reps, and rest in between work. Setup stations. Make copies of workout activities for each student. Define repetition, set, and time as they relate to muscular endurance and strength. Spread students throughout the gym and explain the exercise before starting. Explain what 2 sets of 10 would be like. Complete as a class 2 sets of 10 as a practice. Use the stopwatch to time how long it takes as a class to complete 2 sets of 10 of each activity in the gym. Add the time together to see how long it took the class to complete the workout.
Intermediate
• Frequency: Activity Log- Discuss and define frequency. Brainstorm as a class things they do that are muscular strength and endurance related. Encourage PE activities or sports outside of school as well as every day tasks (raking leaves/carrying the groceries). Create and pass out an activity log. Students fill out log with parents over one to two weeks. Return log and discuss how often people were active. Ask students to define frequency and compare their logs to the number of days they should be active (2-3 times a week). Talk about activities that are most common.
• Intensity: Obstacle course- Setup obstacle course focusing on muscular strength and endurance. Crab walk/bear walk/jump and leap to hula hoops/perform curl ups and pushups/army crawl under parachute/push up hockey/scooter through cones/jump up and down a box/monkey bars. Discuss FITT idea and explain that this will cover intensity. Review how to use obstacle course. Stagger starts and speak about safety. Compete course and assign groups to a station of course. Ask students to come up with an adaptation to increase the stations intensity. Have groups show adaptations.
• Type: Shuffle and Hustle- specificity or type refers to the type of activity. Every activity affects certain body groups. Students will be able to define specificity or type and list exercises that develop particular muscle groups. Create posters with exercises specific to a body group and a suit. Demonstrate to students how to do each exercise and discuss how each affects each muscle. Students will choose a card from a pile and head to the poster of the suit. They will pick an exercise from that poster and use the number on the card to determine quantity. Students continue until all cards are used up. Point to muscles and ask students to explain an exercise they did that will affect that muscle group.
• Time: How long an activity takes. Time that it takes for sets and reps to take with rest between. Students will learn repetitions, set, and rest in a workout. Time encompasses sets, reps, and rest in between work. Setup stations. Make copies of workout activities for each student. Define repetition, set, and time as they relate to muscular endurance and strength. Put students into groups with a stopwatch. Review and demonstrate the muscular strength activities at each station. Put students at each station and explain that students are to complete 2 sets of 10 repetitions before moving on to the next station. Students will start the stopwatch at the beginning of the first students reps and end at the conclusion of the 2nd students 2nd set. At the conclusion students will add the times together to find the total length of workout.
Cardiovascular Efficiency: Ability to play without getting tired (hear rate/breathing/tired muscles) developmentally appropriate activities on all or most days. Several bouts of exercise lasting 15 minutes. Mixture intensity or moderate to vigorous. Time is at least 60 minutes and up to several hours. 50% should be in increments of at least 15 minutes. Type should be varied. Continuous activity not expected. But variety of activities required.
Primary
• Frequency: Aerobic Activity Picture Chart- Students will understand and demonstrate how many days each week they should perform aerobic activity. After completing an activity that works out the cardiovascular system discuss with the students how to get a healthy heart they need to workout their heart, lungs, and muscles almost every day. Brainstorm activities that raise heart rate (in school and out). Create and give out aerobic activity chart for students to complete with parents. Students draw pictures of things they did each day to raise their heart rate. Create a bulletin board with the activities from students. Highlight favorites of students.
• Intensity: Animal Locomotion- Students learn how hard you work your heart during physical activity. As you work your heart your lungs work harder. Heart beat faster to move blood through your body delivering oxygen and nutrients to muscles. Students will demonstrate different movements that are aerobically intense. Students will understand that the harder they work the harder their heartbeats, the faster they breathe, and the hotter their body will become. Students will understand that increasing intensity will strengthen the heart. Discuss intensity (how hard you work). Students will be working harder and harder throughout period and checking heart rate as they go. Discuss why increasing intensity makes the heart stronger and improves health in lungs. Practice finding heart rate with hand over chest. Discuss what else our body does when working hard. Move around the gym in different forms (hopping, crabwalk, bear walk, running) and check heart after each. Discuss what activities were the hardest. Discuss why one activity was harder than another.
• Type: Certain exercises use more oxygen and require faster heart rates. Students will identify activities that are heart healthy. Will see how frequency, intensity, and time can influence aerobic fitness. Place healthy heart activities on the wall. Practice each station. Choose students to be taggers. Students getting tagged complete an activity on the wall and join back into game. Take rests and change taggers often. Change locomotor skills for game. Ask students to name several examples of aerobic activities. Ask students why aerobic activity is good for their body.
• Time: How long you participate in an activity. Talk to students about pacing and that they will move for 15 minutes straight. That they will need to move at a speed they can continue the entire time. Change movements throughout the 15 minutes. Highlight that students should be active like this for 60 minutes each day. Brainstorm ways to do this. Student’s thumbs up or down whether they were able to keep going the entire time.
Intermediate
• Frequency: Fitness Log- Students will understand and show that they know how often they need to perform physical activity. After cardiovascular workout, have students brainstorm ways in which they can get their heart, lungs, and muscles moving each day. Inside and outside of PE class. Students fill out fitness contract and log with parents. Discuss different ways to get active. Talk about different opportunities in the community to be active.
• Intensity: How hard you work in an activity. Students will learn benefits of good aerobic fitness. Will demonstrate principle of intensity by participating in activities with varying intensities. Check heart rate to monitor intensity. Talk about aerobic fitness and intensity. Warm students up. Students in station groups. 15 seconds at each station and move to the next. Students are completing different jumping activities (jump rope. Chinese jump rope, long ropes, jumping jacks) at each station. Cool down after work. At next class have students increase the intensity of each station by increasing the time at each. Talk about how intense each activity was. Describe intensity and ask for students to describe how to change the intensity.
• Type: Certain exercises use more oxygen and require faster heart rates. Students will understand that they must make choices to develop, sustain, and increase aerobic fitness. Students will be able to identify activities that are heart healthy and those that do other things. Stations with groups. Cards at each station with activities. Students will go through each activity and then decide which activities were heart healthy. Talk about what the other stations would help with. Ask students for activities that are heart healthy.
• Time: How long you participate in an activity. Talk to students about pacing. Tell students that they are trying to move around the track for 15 minutes without stopping. Discuss how this is aerobic activity and that they want to keep their heart rate up throughout. See if students can estimate their ending time. Talk about how this was only a piece of the 60 minutes that students should be active each day. Have students log the activities they choose over a week. See if they reach the minimum of 60 minutes a day.
Flexibility: is essential for learning and perfecting motor skills. Range of Motion is imperative to normal mobility. Connect students with stretching and the motor skills they are working on. This will enhance flexibility as a lifestyle choice. Create an awareness of need for flexibility. 3 times a week and preferably daily after a warm up. Slow stretch to the point of discomfort and then let go a little. 4-5 stretches per muscle group holding each for 10-30 seconds. Slow static stretch for all muscles and muscle groups.
Primary
• Frequency: Students will participate in stretching activities 3 times a week. Have students brainstorm ways that they can stretch during the week. Come up with examples outside of PE class. Flexibility Activity Chart to fill out with parents over two weeks. Examples of different stretches and places to do them. Bulletin board full of ideas. Ask students how often they stretched. Ask students for stretches they can do each day. Discuss favorite stretching activities.
• Intensity: Slow elongation of the muscle to the point of mild discomfort and back off slightly.
• Type: Roll the Stretch- Type in relation to the joint or muscle groups that you will be using will become more flexible. Put students into groups. Each group has a chart. Warm Up students. Each group will get a group stretching chart. Charts include 6 area of the body (feet and ankles, lower legs, hamstrings, abductors, quadriceps, hips and gluteus muscles). Remind students to use slow steady movements to stretch safely. One student rolls the dice and completes a stretch of that body area. Dice and chart are then passed to the next student. Give each a chance to roll.
• Time: How long you need to hold a stretch to improve and maintain flexibility. No bouncing or jerking for 10 seconds, progressing to 30 seconds. Students will show how to not bounce, and hold a stretch for a good amount of stretching time. Discuss bouncing and jerking and what stretching is doing inside the body. What could bouncing do? Everyone has different flexibility. Move students around…to warm up. Ask students to stop on the music and ask them what they see. “I see 10 alligators”. Stretch cards have different stretches with pictures. Hold the card and ask students to perform stretch and count to 10 alligators. Repeat until all stretches have been completed. Ask students how long they could hold stretch. Have students demonstrate stretches. Should last at least 10 seconds and be free of bouncing.
Intermediate
• Frequency: Flexibility Activity Log- Number of stretching times a week. Should try to do 3 a week. Brainstorm ways to stretch in everyday lives. Encourage outside of classroom ideas. Flexibility Activity Log to fill out with parents over two weeks. Ask students to try different ways to stretch. Bulletin board of activities that involve stretching. Have students tell or write about frequency and how many days they should participate in flexibility activities. Discuss with class their favorites.
• Intensity: Slow elongation of the muscle to the point of mild discomfort and back off slightly.
• Type: Roll the Stretch- Type in relation to the joint or muscle groups that you will be using will become more flexible. Put students into groups. Each group has a chart. Warm Up students. Each group will get a group stretching chart. Charts include 6 area of the body (feet and ankles, lower legs, hamstrings, abductors, quadriceps, hips and gluteus muscles). Remind students to use slow steady movements to stretch safely. One student rolls the dice and completes a stretch of that body area. Dice and chart are then passed to the next student. Give each a chance to roll. For intermediate, ask students to show stretches that can work different body groups. Or choose sports that students can think about and find stretches to accomplish before playing the sport.
• Time: Warm up the students. Discuss different muscles groups and joints. Discuss different joints and how they are used in activities/sports. Discuss ligaments and muscles with a rubber band. Talk about how if you stretch to far that muscles (rubber band can get hurt). To keep the rubber band safe students should move slowly into a stretch. Discuss time it takes for things to stretch out. Teach students to count to 10 Mississippi’s before moving to another stretch.
Body Composition: Results from physical activity levels. Aerobic activities burn calories. Muscular strength and endurance- muscles burn more calories at rest than fat cells do. A flexible body can better tolerate aerobic fitness and muscular strength and endurance activities that will lead to better body composition.

Progression: How an individual should increase overload to strengthen areas. Gradual increase by increasing frequency, intensity, or time. Push Up/Curl Up Challenge- Practice correct form and discuss gradually increasing frequency, intensity, and time to increase ability. Remind students about individual differences. Record practice score and create a goal to work towards. Practice over time or at home and record scores on log. 3 consecutive days over the course of two weeks. Try to meet or exceed their goal. Complete test at end as compare results. Compare number of practices with improvement of final scores. Discuss progression with the use of Frequency, Intensity, Type and Time. Discuss why they may have progressed.